The focus of the FEA and Optimization course outlined below is to introduce students to the overall simulation work flow/process including model building, analysis and optimization, and results visualization.

By confronting students to questions such as: how-why- and where to simplify geometry, does meshing matter (i.e. type of elements and size to be used), how to deal with boundary conditions, what are the respective material properties, model units, model errors, what can we learn from simulation results, how to „manage“ topology and topography optimization, etc. students will become acquainted with a variety of practical aspects of simulation.

In the course depicted below students will be asked to work on various simulation tasks encompassing the above described items. Thus, students need to learn some basics about HyperWorks (e.g. GUI, solver syntax etc.). Nevertheless, this course is NOT a HyperWorks standard class.

The time (duration) listed serves as an „orientation“ and depends on the feedback and skills of the students. Moreover, students are assumed to have no HyperWorks experience prior to the course.

**Intro & Simulation Case Studies**

Material: PPT; Case_Studies

Approx. 30 minutes

**General Aspects of FEM**

- High level overview
- What do you need to run a FEM analysis?
- Discuss (likely) error sources.

Material: PPT

Approx. 30 minutes

**Preprocessing – Intro HyperMesh & Geometry**

- GUI
- Geometry topology & cleanup
- Creating surfaces, organizing entities, etc.

Material: PPT; Model Files

Approx. 150 minutes

**Preprocessing - Meshing**

- Discussion of various element types (1D/2D/2D, linear & second order) and their use case
- Let students draw a mesh (on paper) of a tapered surface: same element density on opposing edges (quads only), different element density on opposing edges (quads only), different element density on opposing edges (mixed trias and quads)
- 2D meshing, mesh quality, normals, compatibility, mesh editing, create & edit elements manually, distance, replace nodes, toggle edges and see how mesh flow changes, shrink mode, ...

Material: PPT; Model Files

Approx. 150 minutes

**Preprocessing - Geometry cleanup**** - Meshing 3D **

- PSOLID
- How to apply pressure
- Create RBE2

Material: PPT; Model Files

Approx. 60 minutes

**Analysis - OptiStruct (I)**

- Understand implications of element type, and size on results)
- File: model built from scratch, starting with nodes, lines, surface, ...

Material: PPT

Approx. 120 minutes

**Analysis - OptiStruct (III)**

- Explain RBE 2 elements (used to fix the holes).
- How to define and assign Materials, Properties; Explain Card Image (solver syntax)
- Loads, Loadsteps
- Save file (*.hm & *.fem)
- Discuss *.fem ASCII file / structure

Material: PPT; Model Files

Approx. 90 minutes

**Analysis - OptiStruct (II)**

- Run analysis
- Discussion of errors; debugging process; *.out file;
- Update material, property, load step defintions etc.
- Postprocessing with HyperView, animate results; discuss differences between instructor- and student model results
- Show how to update RBE2 elements; re-run instructor model and display results (should match student results now)

Material: PPT; Model Files

Approx. 120 minutes

**How to improve the performance of the bracket?**

- Discussion of likely solutions
- Introduction into free hand morphing
- Re-run analysis and compare differences
- Derive new geometry
- Discuss advantages of morphing with respect to the standard design process ...

Material: PPT

Approx. 120 minutes

**Analysis - OptiStruct (IV)**

- Analyse the Cclip structure (from CAD to results; entire process)
- Results: displacements at the tip

Material: PPT; Model Files

Approx. 60 minutes

**Manual Optimization**

- Students are asked to re-design the Cclip (to make it a light weight Cclip) taking into account: same forces, material, thickness, shape of the „opening“, the constraints may be relocated/shifted in the new design; definition of max. allowed displacement at the tip
- Students should use a CAD system of their choice if possible
- Collect & Compare results obtained by teams/individual student

Approx. 60 minutes

**Topology Optimization (I)**

- Intro –what is it about, how does it work, defintions, etc; what other optimization disciplines exist, how do they differ from each other? Discuss Case Studies
- Define Topology optmization set-up by using the ready to solve model file: clip_analyse.fem; run optimization (no minmember size)
- Postprocessing of topology results; *.out file, what about intermediate dense elements, isocontour plot and its implications, derive geometry (OSsmooth)

Material: PPT; Model Files

Approx. 120 minutes

**Topology Optimization (II)**

- Introduce minmember size and re-run optimization; "best" isocontour value, derive geometry and re-design the design in the CAD system, re-analysis
- Collect results: area, displacement at tip, compare differences etc.

Approx. 180 minutes

**Modal Analysis**

- File: oilpan.hm
- New: Card Image Eigrl
- New: Loadstep analysis type „normal modes“
- Discuss with students how to increase for instance 1st eigenfrequency

Material: PPT; Model Files

Approx. 120 minutes

**Topography Optimization**

- How to set-up a topography optimization; Discuss design variable, design space, bead params, pattern grouping, ...
- Compare manually optimized and OptiStruct optimized results
- Derive geometry with OSsmooth

Material: PPT; Model Files

Approx. 120 minutes

**Intro Non-Linear FEA (with OptiStruct)**

- High level introduction

Material: PPT; Model Files

Approx. 240 minutes

**DOE – Design of Experiments**:

- To better understand which model parameters are „key“
- Intro in HyperStudy
- Vary thickness T and Youngs Modulus E to understand which parameter is more important

Material: PPT; Model Files

Approx. 240 minutes

**Introduction into Crash Simulation with RADIOSS**

- High level intro

Material: PPT; Model Files

Approx. 240 minutes

**Final Project**

- e.g. tow-bar or other projects available in the Learning Library

Material: PPT; Model Files

>> 240 minutes